VOLUME 1: Political warfare operations have been central to the Chinese and Russian regimes’ international operations and strategic advances for the last two decades. Indeed, they have long featured prominently in Chinese and Russian strategic culture and practice. Both regimes are well-equipped, very experienced, and highly skilled in the conduct of these political warfare campaigns. The West, by contrast, largely abandoned high-level political warfare operations at the end of the Cold War. It has put the United States, its close allies, and its international partners at a disadvantage that needs to be remedied.