Winning Without Fighting: Chinese and Russian Political Warfare Campaigns and How the West Can Prevail

VOLUME 2: The first volume of this report assessed the role of political warfare in the international operations of the Putin and Xi Jinping regimes. While many contemporary thinkers use a narrow definition of political warfare, this report takes another path by drawing on Clausewitzian logic to argue that political warfare encompasses the use of a very wide range of national and international instruments in efforts to persuade, intimidate, coerce, undermine and weaken opponents, and hence achieve desired political goals.